in 2007, the supreme court ruled that school districts

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are classified as "Other". The majority ruled that the District had a compelling interest in maintaining racial diversity. And second, Kennedy faults the dissent for ignoring the "presumptive invalidity of a State's use of racial classifications to differentiate its treatment of individuals.". All are attempting to adhere to the historic Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court ruling in 1954 that declared school segregation unconstitutional. The schools base their numbers in demographics, therefore making this goal a means to achieve a numerical quota to achieve racial balancing. A bitterly divided U.S. Supreme Court on Thursday issued what is likely to be a landmark opinion -- ruling that race cannot be a factor in the assignment of children to public schools. The justices ordered that the state government "enact a constitutional school … Uploaded By ChefReindeerMaster120. Kennedy argued that the government had an interest in ensuring racial equality: "The plurality opinion is too dismissive of the legitimate interest government has in ensuring all people have equal opportunity regardless of their race.". This case is the last of a trilogy of cases against Jefferson County Public Schools (JCPS) and their use of race in assigning students to schools. CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT No. The Court held that the voluntary integration programs used in Seattle and Louisville were unconstitutional, in part because race was used in a … In a footnote the Justice added a personal mention of Justice Breyer: "Justice Breyer's good intentions, which I do not doubt, have the shelf life of Justice Breyer's tenure. 2d 304. In this Plurality Opinion, Roberts wrote that the Schools at issue contend that a racially diverse environment is beneficial for education and they submit this as the reason why they consider race alone in their school assignments. "[3] Justice Breyer noted, "No one here disputes that Louisville's segregation was de jure" and cites a 1956 memo where the Seattle School Board admitted its schools were de jure segregated as well. The school districts then filed an appeal with the Ohio Supreme Court, which agreed to consider the case in 1996. But Winkelman and her husband, Jeff, won a round Monday when the Supreme Court ruled unanimously in their favor regarding a legal sticking point in their lawsuit against their local school board. In 2004, he ruled the same for the traditional schools, but allowed the regular public schools to use race as the admission requirement. But the racial makeup of today’s schools actually owes itself to a series of other court decisions – including one issued 45 years ago on July 25, 1974. The Supreme Court ruled in Lawrence v. Texas that the right to privacy Both school districts voluntarily used individualized racial classifications to achieve diversity and/or to avoid racial isolation through student assignment. Public schools may not use race as the sole determining factor for assigning students to schools. The en banc panel came to the opposite conclusion and upheld the tiebreaker. 2007-06-28 10:17:00 PDT WASHINGTON, D.C.-- The Supreme Court dealt a severe blow to school integration efforts today, ruling that the Constitution forbids … The suit alleged that they were denied entrance because they were black. Magnet and Traditional are exempt from this ratio per the 2000 and 2003 Court Order. 1 ET AL. School districts can be liable for damages under Federal law for failing to stop a student from subjecting another to severe and pervasive sexual harassment, the Supreme Court ruled today. In concurrence with the majority opinion Justice Clarence Thomas restated his view, in agreement with Justice Harlan's dissent in Plessy, that the Constitution is "color-blind." The U.S. Supreme Court is seen in Washington, D.C. on December 7, 2020. In the Justice's 77-page written opinion he called the ruling a "radical" step away from established law that would take from communities a critical tool used for many years in the prevention of resegregation. Justice Anthony Kennedy did not join parts of the opinion of Chief Justice Roberts. This tension was compounded in 2007, when the Supreme Court ruled that districts not specifically under court desegregation orders could not engage in the explicitly racial allocation of students.5 Thus, even if a unitary district wanted to maintain its racial allocation policies, it would be legally unable to … Justice John Paul Stevens wrote a sharply worded short dissent in which he accused the plurality of misusing and misapplying previous Supreme Court precedents including Brown v. Board of Education. Seattle School District No. ); internal quotation marks omitted). Roberts concludes that racial balancing cannot be a compelling state interest. 1", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Guidance on the Voluntary Use of Race to Achieve Diversity and Avoid Racial Isolation in Elementary and Secondary Schools, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, Green v. County School Board of New Kent County, "Guidance ESE from Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights Russlynn Ali and United States Assistant Attorney General Thomas E. Perez", http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=000&invol=05-908, "Justices Limit the Use of Race in School Plans for Integration", "Not Hearing History: A Critique of Chief Justice Roberts's Reinterpretation of, Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. In subsequent rulings the California court mandated that per pupil expenditures be set at virtually identical levels across school districts. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during this case was Earl Warren. The Supreme Court ruling O and the supreme court has ruled that school School University of Rhode Island; Course Title PSC 113; Type. The ruling, called for deference to judgments made by state legislators. ", 488 U.S., at 519, 109 S. Ct. 706, 102 L. Ed. The case centred on LaShonda Davis, a fifth grader in Monroe county, Georgia. [28], Plurality opinion by Chief Justice Roberts. [27], The opinion came less than two months before the start of the regular school year in King County and less than three weeks before the start of year-round school in the District. The Court recognized that seeking diversity and avoiding racial isolation are compelling state interests. Narrow tailoring requires "serious, good faith consideration of workable race-neutral alternatives," Grutter, supra, at 339, 123 S. Ct. 2325, 156 L. Ed. Frederick, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on June 25, 2007, ruled (5–4) that Alaskan school officials had not violated a student’s First Amendment freedom of speech rights after suspending him for displaying, at a school event, a banner that was seen as promoting illegal drug use. Part IV (again joined only by a plurality of the Court) addressed Justice Breyer's dissent. Morse v. Frederick, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on June 25, 2007, ruled (5–4) that Alaskan school officials had not violated a student’s First Amendment freedom of speech rights after suspending him for displaying, at a school event, a banner that was seen as promoting illegal drug use.. First, Seattle claimed that none of the current members of Parents Involved can claim an imminent injury. What was the result of the 2007 Supreme Court ruling in Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. Roberts provides the following string citation: Parents Involved in Cmty. See details. No distinction was made between various categories of non-whites; Asian-Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and African-Americans were all treated solely as "non-white" for purposes of the tiebreaker. 2019 IL App (2d) 180551. The school boards of all school districts, including A Supreme Court decision on special education raises complicated questions for public schools and parents. "[2], According to Kennedy, "The cases here were argued upon the assumption, and come to us on the premise, that the discrimination in question did not result from de jure actions." "But the district vigorously defends the constitutionality of its race-based program, and nowhere suggests that if this litigation is resolved in its favor it will not resume using race to assign students. Justice Thomas recoils at the suggestion that black students can only learn if they are sitting next to white students. SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES Syllabus PARENTS INVOLVED IN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS v. SEATTLE SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. The now-retired Butler County Common Pleas Court Judge Charles Pater previously ruled 26 hours of training required in the district’s policy was enough for school staff. First, Kennedy harshly faults the dissent for consciously ignoring the difference between de jure and de facto segregation. The US Supreme Court has ruled that the race of a child cannot be used to determine where he or she will be sent to school BBC News : The decision, one of the most important civil rights rulings in years, may affect millions of children in the US. The appeals court disagreed and ordered the school district to stop the program without much more involved training. Chief Justice John Roberts wrote the opinion of the court as to Parts I, II, III-A and III-C. Part I recounted the background of the plans of the two school boards. Roberts cites to: Grutter, supra, at 327, 328, 334, 123 S. Ct. 2325, 156 L. Ed. [22] An interest "linked to nothing other than proportional representation of various races . The first case started in 1998 when five African American high school students sued JCPS to allow them to attend Central High School, a magnet school. The U.S. Supreme Court on Monday preserved an Oregon public school district's policy of accommodating transgender students, rejecting an appeal challenging a … 2d 257 (2003) (quoting [***38] Fullilove v. Klutznick, 448 U.S. 448, 537, 100 S. Ct. 2758, 65 L. Ed. 2d 304. He also wrote about the unsettled debate concerning whether racial balance or diversity has a positive effect on educational outcomes. 2007-06-28 10:17:00 PDT WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The Supreme Court dealt a severe blow to school integration efforts today, ruling that the Constitution forbids … 1 and Meredith v. Jefferson County Board of Education (PICS). In 2007 the Supreme Court reversed itself and ruled that public school systems from SOCI 1311 at University of Texas, Arlington Here Roberts provides the following string citation: quoting Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244, 270, 123 S. Ct. 2411, 156 L. Ed. Parents Involved in Cmty. 2d 304. June 29, 2007. Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on May 24, 1999, ruled (5–4) that, under Title IX of the Federal Education Amendments (1972), school boards are liable for failing to stop student-on-student sexual harassment under certain circumstances.. Applying these precedents to K-12 education, the Circuit Court found that the tiebreaker scheme was not narrowly tailored. "[21] Allowing racial balancing as a compelling end in itself would "effectively assur[e] that race will always be relevant in American life, and that the 'ultimate goal' of 'eliminating entirely from governmental decisionmaking such irrelevant factors as a human being's race' will never be achieved." To that end, in 2011, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Justice jointly issued Guidance on the Voluntary Use of Race to Achieve Diversity and Avoid Racial Isolation in Elementary and Secondary Schools, acknowledging the flexibility that school districts have in taking proactive steps to meet the compelling interests of promoting diversity and avoiding racial isolation within the parameters of current law.[4]. The case centred on LaShonda Davis, a fifth grader in Monroe county, Georgia. Part III A first reiterated that "when the government distributes burdens or benefits on the basis of individual racial classifications, that action is reviewed under strict scrutiny. The state Supreme Court heard oral arguments from both sides in the case involving Madison Local Schools in southwestern Ohio but didn't indicate when it would rule. Priest (1971), the California Supreme Court ruled that the public school finance system then in place was unconstitutional because of the disparities in expenditures that it generated. In Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. The Supreme Court ruled in 2007 that Frederick’s action were unprotected speech. [citation needed], The 4–1–4 split makes PICS somewhat similar to the 1978 Bakke case, which held that affirmative action was unconstitutional in the case directly before the Court. The student assignment plan of Seattle Public Schools and Jefferson County Public Schools does not meet the narrowly tailored and compelling interest requirements for a race-based assignment plan because it is used only to achieve "racial balance." The Court split 4–1–4 on key aspects of the case, with Justice Kennedy writing the swing vote opinion and agreeing with four Justices (Roberts, Scalia, Thomas, and Alito) that the programs used by Seattle and Louisville did not pass constitutional muster (because the districts failed to demonstrate that their plans were sufficiently narrowly tailored), but Kennedy also found, along with four Justices (Breyer, Stevens, Souter, and Ginsburg), that compelling interests exist in avoiding racial isolation and promoting diversity. Question: Essay Questions Regarding Economy "The US Supreme Court Ruled That Cities Could Have School Voucher Programs That Give Money Directly To Parents, Who Could Then Choose Among Competing Schools, Public Or Private. 2d 304. The district court ruled in Schempp's favor, and struck down the Pennsylvania statute. This plan is in place as of 2017. "[7] Under the Supreme Court's precedents on racial classification in higher education, Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger, race-based classifications must be directed toward a "compelling government interest" and must be "narrowly tailored" to that interest. [Washington, DC] -- On Thursday, June 28, 2007 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the school systems in Seattle, WA and in Louisville, KY had violated the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment by their use of a student's race in deciding whom to admit to particular public schools. Here Roberts provides the following string citation: Here, Roberts provides the following string cite: Id., at 337, 123 S. Ct. 2325, 156 L. Ed. The high court yesterday ruled that an … [10], Neither school could plead this compelling interest, because "[w]e have emphasized that the harm being remedied by mandatory desegregation plans is the harm that is traceable to segregation, and that 'the Constitution is not violated by racial imbalance in the schools, without more. Justice Kennedy asserts that the dissent must "brush aside two concepts of central importance" to uphold the racial classification in the case. In the end, the court divided with four votes on each side and Justice Anthony Kennedy splitting the difference – and leaving officials of the Seattle and … In 2007 the Supreme Court again ruled in favor of the principal’s decision to suspend Joseph Frederick for hanging a banner across the street from the school that said “Bong Hits 4 Jesus.” This case was particularly dragged out, as it went to court nine times before being taken up by the Supreme Court. Parents and six school districts claiming the school funding system is unconstitutional will take their lawsuit to the state Supreme Court. Question 12 the supreme court has ruled that the unequal financing of public schools in cities, suburbs, and rural districts is a violation of the constitutional right to equal education. 05–908. ", Roberts cites to: "539 U.S., at 329, 334, 123 S. Ct. 2325, 156 L. Ed. Roberts cites Adarand, supra, at 227, 115 S. Ct. 2097, 132 L. Ed. 2d 750 (opinion of Powell, J. Louisville's population is about 58% White; 38% Black, 2% Asian, 1.3% Hispanic. At a particular school either whites or non-whites could be favored for admission depending on which race would bring the racial balance closer to the goal. Id., at 338, 123 S. Ct. 2325, 156 L. Ed. Likewise, a district may consider it a compelling interest to achieve a diverse student population. A compelling interest exists in avoiding racial isolation, an interest that a school district, in its discretion and expertise, may choose to pursue. Lower courts had ruled that the Louisville and Seattle programs were constitutional. Even though advances in computer mapping technology have made it possible to achieve near-perfect equality in representation, states districts need not be perfectly equal. We now affirm the lower courts’ judgments. 1? "[2] He went on to say, "What the government is not permitted to do, absent a showing of necessity not made here, is to classify every student on the basis of race and to assign each of them to schools based on that classification. See also Bakke, 438 U.S., at 312, 313, 98 S. Ct. 2733, 57 L. E. 2d 750 (opinion of Powell, J.).". However, Roberts considers that this interest is not compelling and that the use of race for this goal is not narrowly tailored, it is instead used for racial balancing, which is unconstitutional. Dist. In the end, the court divided with four votes on each side and Justice Anthony Kennedy splitting the difference – and leaving officials of the Seattle and … In a separate conference, JCPS Representative Pat Todd emphasized that the current assignment plan would remain in effect for the 2007–2008 school year, citing the finalization of budgets, staffing, assignments and busing as prevailing reasons for no change being logistically possible. 1, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parents_Involved_in_Community_Schools_v._Seattle_School_District_No._1&oldid=1000684729, United States school desegregation case law, United States Supreme Court cases of the Roberts Court, Jefferson County Public Schools (Kentucky), United States affirmative action case law, Articles needing additional references from May 2009, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on May 24, 1999, ruled (5–4) that, under Title IX of the Federal Education Amendments (1972), school boards are liable for failing to stop student-on-student sexual harassment under certain circumstances.. June 28, 2007--This morning, the U.S. Supreme Court acknowledged the well-documented benefits of racially and ethnically diverse schools, but severely limited the very tools school districts need to achieve integration and avoid segregation. Voluntary cessation does not moot a case or controversy unless 'subsequent events ma[ke] it absolutely clear that the allegedly wrongful behavior could not reasonably be expected to recur,'", First, "remedying the effects of past intentional discrimination.". The school district appealed the ruling. 1, 551 U.S. 701 (U.S. 2007). No. circuit court held in favor of the school district, and the appellate court affirmed. In cases where an opinion or parts of an opinion do not reach a majority, the narrower opinion represents the holding, so Justice Kennedy's opinion represents parts of the holding of the case. Second, "the interest in diversity in higher education", as upheld in, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 06:11. You can adjust your cookie choices in those tools at any time. Abington School District v. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203 (1963), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court decided 8–1 in favor of the respondent, Edward Schempp on behalf of his son Ellery Schempp, and declared that school-sponsored Bible reading in public schools in the United States was unconstitutional. Supreme Court Rules On Special Education Case In a 6-to-3 decision, the Supreme Court ruled Monday that school districts could be required to … Here, Roberts provides the following string citation: Here Roberts cites: "See 539 U.S., at 320, 123 S. Ct. 2325, 156 L. Ed. Roberts replied that these classifications were clearly not necessary, since they had a "minimal effect" on student assignments. He made it clear that "To be forced to live under a state-mandated racial label is inconsistent with the dignity of individuals in our society". 2d 902 (1980) (Stevens, J., dissenting); brackets omitted). However, the dissenters argued that the Constitution permits such desegregation even though it does not require it. The Seattle School District allowed students to apply to any high school in the District. 1 and Meredith v.Jefferson County Board of Education (PICS).). Race-conscious objectives to achieve diverse school environment may be acceptable. 1, decided June 28, 2007, the Supreme Court struck down two race-based school assignment plans as violating the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Sch. CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT No. Race is defined as Black and "Other". America recently marked the 65-year anniversary of the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v.Board of Education – a landmark case intended to abolish the “separate-but-equal” doctrine of racial segregation in schools.. 1, decided June 28, 2007, the Supreme Court struck down two race-based school assignment plans as violating the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. All are attempting to adhere to the historic Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court ruling in 1954 that declared school segregation unconstitutional. Argued December 4, 2006—Decided June 28, 2007* Respondent school districts voluntarily adopted student assignment The Supreme Court ruling On June 28, 2007, the Supreme Court issued a split decision on integration in public schools in the consolidated cases of Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. [9], Roberts noted that prior Supreme Court cases had recognized two compelling interests for the use of race. . Background/Context: In June 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled to prohibit student assignment on the basis of race. Nevertheless, Kennedy found the school districts did not narrowly tailor the use of race to achieve the compelling interests in the case. by Jon Hale America recently marked the 65-year anniversary of the Supreme Court… Argued December 4, 2006—Decided June 28, 2007* Respondent school districts voluntarily adopted student assignment SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES Syllabus PARENTS INVOLVED IN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS v. SEATTLE SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. The programs are similar to those in hundreds of other school districts. 539 U.S., at 325, 123 S. Ct. 2325, 156 L. Ed. [3] All of the dissenting Justices acknowledged that "the Constitution does not impose a duty to desegregate upon districts" if they have not practiced racial discrimination. Specifically, Kennedy finds that the districts could have achieved the same goal through less racially charged means. WASHINGTON, June 28 — With competing blocs of justices claiming the mantle of Brown v. Board of Education, a bitterly divided … Seattle School District No. With respect to avoiding racial isolation, Kennedy wrote, "A compelling interest exists in avoiding racial isolation, an interest that a school district, in its discretion and expertise, may choose to pursue. No. That point was challenged in Justice Breyer's dissent (joined by Stevens, Souter and Ginsberg). ruled that the unequal financing of public schools in cities, suburbs, and rural districts is not a constitutional matter. Sch. Justice Anthony Kennedy did not join the rest of the opinion by the Chief Justice, therefore, those parts of the opinion did not command a majority. 1, 551 U.S. 701 (U.S. 2007). For Thomas, this means that no discrimination on the basis of race is permitted by the Constitution, even for a so-called "benign" purpose (Thomas rejected the notion that there could be a purely benign purpose in his concurrence in Adarand because the benignity or malignity of race-based discrimination turns on "whose ox is being gored" or is "in the eye of the beholder"). 2d 304 (quoting Bakke, supra, at 315, 98 S. Ct. 2733, 57 L. Ed. The school district appealed to the high court last year. Question: Essay Questions Regarding Economy "The US Supreme Court Ruled That Cities Could Have School Voucher Programs That Give Money Directly To Parents, Who Could Then Choose Among Competing Schools, Public Or Private. Kennedy's opinion also emphasized the risks posed by allowing for the proliferation of mechanically imposed individual race classifications of its citizens. A non-profit group, Parents Involved in Community Schools, sued the District, arguing that the racial tiebreaker violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment as well as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Washington state law. If you click “Agree and Continue” below, you acknowledge that your cookie choices in those tools will be respected and that you otherwise agree to the use of cookies on NPR’s sites. Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. On appeal, a three-judge panel the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed, but upon en banc rehearing the court affirmed the lower court decision. Justice Thomas also rejected the view advanced by the dissent that these school districts were in danger of resegregation. While that appeal was pending, the Pennsylvania legislature amended the statute to allow children to be excused from the exercises upon the written request of their parents. A bitterly divided U.S. Supreme Court on Thursday issued what is likely to be a landmark opinion -- ruling that race cannot be a factor in the assignment of children to public schools. Since certain schools often became oversubscribed when too many students chose them as their first choice, the District used a system of tiebreakers to decide which students would be admitted to the popular schools. The Supreme Court last year ruled 5-4 against Trump’s effort to add a citizenship question to the census. Nonetheless, Bakke was used to uphold the validity of affirmative action programs that fostered diversity in higher education for a quarter of a century. It is this part that went before the US Supreme Court as the other two cases were not appealed by JCPS. The District then petitioned for an en banc ruling by a panel of 11 Ninth Circuit judges. Some of the concurrence consists of social science citations and statistics showing that black students can succeed in majority black schools such as HBCUs. The Chief Justice finally concludes his opinion by answering some of the issues raised by Justice Stephen Breyer in his dissent. 2d 158. You may click on “Your Choices” below to learn about and use cookie management tools to limit use of cookies when you visit NPR’s sites. This is because "'racial classifications are simply too pernicious to permit any but the most exact connection between justification and classification.'" It is my firm conviction that no Member of the Court that I joined in 1975 would have agreed with today's decision. ", Justice Stephen G. Breyer, in the principal dissenting opinion, dismissed Justice Kennedy's proposed alternatives to the labeling and sorting of individual students by race and, in a surprisingly emotional 20 minute speech from the bench, denounced the majority opinion. The Idea Was To Create Competition Among Schools. 1 ET AL. Furthermore, Kennedy found that race-conscious mechanisms can be used by school districts to further the goal of diversity, a position rejected by the plurality. 1 (hereafter referred to as PICS), the court deemed race-based strategies used to voluntarily desegregate school districts to be unconstitutional. Associated Press WASHINGTON — The U.S. Supreme Court today ruled … The Pennsylvania Supreme Court on Thursday reinstated a lawsuit challenging the state's school-funding system, a victory for struggling districts long seeking relief from what they say is an unjust structure that relies too heavily on property taxes and doesn't meet schools' needs. This information is shared with social media, sponsorship, analytics, and other vendors or service providers. NPR’s sites use cookies, similar tracking and storage technologies, and information about the device you use to access our sites (together, “cookies”) to enhance your viewing, listening and user experience, personalize content, personalize messages from NPR’s sponsors, provide social media features, and analyze NPR’s traffic. The measures that can be used to promote school integration were limited. Justice Thomas concludes noting "If our history has taught us anything it has taught us to beware of elites bearing racial theories." Roberts cites to: "Id., at 330, 123 S. Ct. 2325, 156 L. Ed. June 28, 2007--This morning, the U.S. Supreme Court acknowledged the well-documented benefits of racially and ethnically diverse schools, but severely limited the very tools school districts need to achieve integration and avoid segregation. 2007: Supreme Court agreed that the school districts' use of race in their voluntary integration plans, even for the purpose of preventing resegregation, violated the …

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