school refusal assessment scale

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Please only do so at your own discretion and like with all Psychological tools, please use with caution as many methods of assessment have their flaws. Additionally, a provider may administer the School Refusal Assessment Scale- Revised, a self- and parent-report measure that can help identify school avoidance and what might be driving this behavior. Kearney, C. A.; Silverman, W. K. (1993), "Measuring the function of school refusal behavior: The School Refusal Assessment Scale", Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22 (1): 85–86Kearney, C. A. R�~���QQ=�3B�s]����EH�ȌP��\�x�戇�z�,�?�%�a���)ċݯ�0�)�CL�/�]����W��GY The scale was created to overcome shortcomings from previous classification systems including an over reliance on clinical judgement rather than empirical evidence leading to a lack of rater reliability, issues with validity and lack of utility in treatment (Kearney & … Descriptive functional assessment of school refusal behavior: SRAS The initial version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale consisted of 16 items, 4 for each functional condition mentioned earlier. 18,19 This scale poses 24 questions, the answers to which measure the relative strength of each of the 4 functions. The SRAS-R consists of a child and parent questionnaire with the wording on items altered slightly for each target audience. School refusal often is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, comparisons between other measures of internalising and externalising symptoms and the SRAS have shown nonsignificant associations although they were in the direction expected. School refusal will have a negative affect on academic and social development and can lead to a student completely dropping out of school. Some children feel badly at school, some have trouble with other people, some just want to be with their family, and others like to do things that are more fun outside of school. Objective: Psychometric properties of the original and a modified version of the «Einschätzungsskala der Schulverweigerung» (German version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale, SRAS; Kearney & Silverman, 1993; Overmeyer et al., 1994) were analyzed in order to identify alternative ways to revise the SRAS/ESV compared to the existing revision SRAS-R (Kearney, 2002). There is still limited support for the four-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision (SRAS-R). The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was first constructed by Kearney and Silverman (1993) and then revised in 2002 (Kearney). Gebruik Angst. The aim of this study was to analyze the factorial invariance and latent means differences of the Spanish version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised for Children (SRAS-R-C) in a sample of 1,078 students (50.8% boys) aged 8-11 years ( M = 9.63, SD = 1.12). The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was first constructed by Kearney and Silverman (1993) and then revised in 2002 (Kearney). Categories three and four represent refusal for positive reinforcement. When our daughter refused to go to primary school our main… This tool should be beneficial to complete and then share with School and Professionals. The scale was created to overcome shortcomings from previous classification systems including an over reliance on clinical judgement rather than empirical evidence leading to a lack of rater reliability, issues with validity and lack of utility in treatment (Kearney & Silverman, 1993). This gives the questionnaire both typological and dimensional properties (Kearney & Silverman, 1993). �� [�0�o�%S�v������,l��z�:9;�'y`�W=� ��'� �����5u�A� ���ϗ�̉��,�]�����2�3� &ʌzH�P� �a Mean correlations for each function subscale on the parental questionnaire ranged from .61- .78 and from .56- .78 on the child version. The first two are centred around negative reinforcement and the other two around positive reinforcement of school refusal behaviour. Abstract. The SRAS-R also shows good concurrent validity with the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children for the negative reinforcement functions. In cases of sudden onset, refusal often begins after a period of legitimate absence. The condition that scores the highest is interpreted as the primary maintaining function of school refusal however the scores on the other conditions are also taken into account when developing a treatment plan. This allows scores to be combined from each respondent to create a more complete picture of school refusing. Separate child and parent versions were developed, and items are rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale from never (0) to always (6). A mean score is calculated for each function and are ranked from highest to lowest. The onset of school refusal can be sudden or gradual. Versions are available for children and parents, who complete their respective scales separately (see Related resources). The SRAS was constructed based on the authors clinical observations as well as research studies looking at successful treatment targeting specific behaviours relating to school refusal. Kearney, C. (2002). Some young people may feel worried and not want to attend school occasionally, but for some, the difficulties around attending school can persevere and result in them repeatedly refusing to attend school. The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was developed to identify four factors that might maintain a youth’s school attendance problem (SAP), and thus be targeted for treatment. The revised scale identified four functions of school refusal which included: (a) avoidance of school-related stimuli provoking negative affectivity (e.g., teacher, test), (b) escaping from aversive social or evaluative situations, (c) to get attention from others and (d) to pursue positive tangible reinforcement outside of school (e.g., television, play). 5 0 obj Nevertheless, the SRAS-R is useful for understanding the function of school refusal, help the design of treatment interventions and to see any changes in function over the course of treatment. He complains of nausea and headache most school days and has to be cajoled into getting out of bed, but his mother says he is fine on weekends. A repository of free psychological assessment tools. Following The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R) and the Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety-Revised (VAA-R) were administered. School refusal may be a little more understood that when it was identified in the 1930s, but we still haven’t come up with any effective or pragmatic solutions, says Fran Morgan I didn’t choose to be an expert on school refusal; it chose me. School refusal behavior refers to child-motivated refusal to attend school and/or difficulty attending classes for an entire day (Kearney & Silverman, 1996). The SRAS was designed to assess the function, rather than the form, of school refusal behaviour and has been used on children aged 6-17 years. One method for quickly assessing the role of these functions is the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised. Following Assessment and management of school refusal require a collaborative approach tha… Oorspronkelijke versie Kearney & Silverman (1993) Huidige versie Heyne, Vreeke & Maric (2008) Doel Deze vragenlijst meet de relatieve kracht van vier gehypothetiseerde functies van schoolweigering en spijbelen. Assessment scale. s�Ta��g�>P�0hW�)+�h�Ҳ�k�����l�� �9�I�8�+s&TZ�Us ��v'��R@hI�g@d�=���QX`�C�Ґ~�E,��)�|��@ʷ�9�oR��6�&_�m�5�mt�+��nC���|Z��w`E�癸�I �f'���� �Ü̲��}�D1%�}���n�@�t�hq� ��h������H"Bﰖ�Z��&4\g'� @��wq�fH��Ä�"�o�-���JA�� ��D`�؋�b� �:z��6�>������z���;�kwU@��\z�����p��_'m��ok�P��m��'�L �s�J��j#_�w���G�(�(�\���$�P���„��yx3�)2�:(��a^=0�)���0kA N :*�O�c�L�+�^�$ZI�X���!��� x��}Y���qD�K�W ��c��ݶdy��6�>|H� ����z0���j`tX�����8�*�����6a�9_t�qeDdd�W��·[����Ǜ�����������Ԓ�����?���?���7���z�=���?�|�C������Ǜ�b�a������ S�SX�y�[�7�`rw������|u�6�6G[��_����5}� ?��� �7>��e)Wm����*��` More than ¼ of all youth will engage in some degree of school refusal during their schooling years, ranging from complaints and threats to avoid school, to missing school for months or even years at a time. stream �t�'�֓|�vٍ�8DpU�9�e�ʸL�]���Mp�d 7�D�H.�'�D�R d��� GUi_��� �Q@Z�a='����H��B�T�X5 x"���@��C�v� �#��V���G�GD��~\��I#����A,�|-,���Y�G�)rb�R�'�h�o�gAT !��ȵ �J%�ZEn�rXf=���AR*��щ� Supporting your child with school anxiety and refusal If your child is refusing to go to school, or is feeling anxious, here's our information and advice to help you support your child and work with the school. Categories one and two refer to school refusal motivated by negative reinforcement. Each item is presented on a Likert scale ranging from 0-6 with 0 being never and 6 being always. %�쏢 J�HC,5��,lp�$Ϋ4��DN���/)��xF����*�,��l�dO��v��e����}�0aW��\ق �r�EY��@ �f� cg=<6���i�Q�`��Ks��2"����&���G �n@�m �8���1��,�"�)����"Z���.��l���p�VDcp0g��I�:,ٶ�lK������.s;�+�0���.N���'�� � yk:p��(�^��5Tyׁ�.��{ a���,.��+���D���E*�'17 H�%�ND��>���}��y3��¾�d��˝����Ӳ�'� �z�1�ƚ��*`� �l�]Jgz����\�'C,�]�X2�^tX�wFɐ�.m�:]�A�h7�g�#|ٖ���a�Y1�jNpi�|�R�4b3s�,ʌG�ޡ��`a4�Ùl�r�JX_�1�E ��$A��Ө������R=��ـѧR=������L� 7'�C�b մ��{��KwV�0��̲�t2+��n|dJ��l�aY������DY�l�d6�06'774;��uY�i���:kvO�3W�x�0�l=��ʒ��-O ���>Q�]*N���O��u��|�xc>���yGf�̮�zTuӑ'����U2��Ѳ��Y�.�N�Q@ ��3�6QT��a Respondents are asked to answer e… School Refusal Assessment £ 10.00 The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R), developed by Christopher Kearney and Wendy Silverman, is a psychological assessment tool designed to evaluate school refusal disorder symptoms in children and identify their reasons for avoiding school. 4. It also allows a clinician to examine differences between respondents and use this information in designing and targeting treatment. 1. All but two items had significant inter-rater reliability on the parent questionnaire with mean correlations for each subscale ranging from .46 to .57. All items on the parent and child questionnaire had significant test-retest reliability over a 7 to 14-day period. School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R) 36 Parental Authority Questionnaire-Adapted Student Version 36 Parental Authority Questionnaire-Adapted Parent Version 36 Statistical Analysis 37 Chapter 3: Results 38 Research Question 1 38 Research Question 2 38 Research Question 3 43 Research Question 4 46 Chapter 4: Discussion 49 The mother, who is eight months pregnant, is frantic; she can't afford to take any more time off work before she delivers. The SRAS was revised to improve psychometric properties, increase score range and to modify the functional model (Kearney, 2002). Furthermore, diagnosed internalising disorders tend to be more common with negatively reinforced school refusers, separation anxiety disorders are generally more common for attention based school refusal and oppositional defiant and conduct disorder are generally more common for school refusing based on tangible reinforcement (Kearney, 2002). School refusal is a problem that is stressful for children, families, and school personnel. Effects of school refusal. <> Access the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R) and compute your score. Measuring the Function of School Refusal Behavior: The School Refusal Assessment Scale. To start, ask for daily feedback from the school, talk with the teacher or counselor about their observations and look for patterns of absences. Separate child and parent versions were developed, and items are rated on a 7 -point Likert -type scale from never (0) to always (6). Seven children and adolescents, who were currently experiencing difficulties attending school, were evaluated with the School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS), an instrument designed to identify maintaining variables surrounding school refusal behavior. A parallel questionnaire, the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Responding to School Attendance Problems (SEQ-RSAP) has been developed for use with the parents of school refusers, to assess their self-efficacy in relation to helping their child attend school regularly and without difficulty (e.g., “If my child has difficulty attending school, I know what can be done to address this”).. The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was developed to identify four factors that might maintain a youth’s school attendance problem (SAP) and thus be targeted in treatment. Fear or a specific phobia about something at school only accounts for a small percent of youth refusing school 3. School Refusal Assessment Scale - Revised, Developed by Christopher Kearney and Wendy Silverman. How often does your child have bad feelings about going to school because he/she is afraid of something re-lated to school (for example, … Find out who you should be dealing with at your current school ; Learn your rights under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) Learn which types of therapy are recommended for school refusal; Item means for each functional School refusal peaks at several points of development, including with entry into Kindergarten, between ages 7-9, and again with entry into Middle or High School. If two functions are within .25 of one another they are ranked as equal. This will have consequences for future employment and create a need for social security benefits. Ryan, age 12, has missed almost three weeks of school so far. School refusal occurs when a student will not go to school or frequently experiences severe distress related to school attendance. Cluster analysis revealed four school refusal behaviour profiles: Non-School refusal, School Refusal by Positive Reinforcement, School Refusal by Negative Reinforcement, and School Refusal by Mixed Reinforcement. Further work needs to see if it is possible to distinguish between function one and two or if they need to be subsumed under a function of negative reinforcement. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24(4), 235-245. doi:10.1023/A:1020774932043, Kearney, C., & Silverman, W. K. (1993). School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (C) Children sometimes have different reasons for not going to school. %PDF-1.4 There is still limited support for the 4-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision (SRAS-R). The following scales were considered specific measures to assess school refusal behavior: the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised for Children (SRAS-R-C, Kearney, 2002a; SRAS, Kearney & Silverman, 1993), the Feelings of School Avoidance (FSA, Watanabe & Koishi, 2000), the School Avoidance Scale (SAS, Fujigaki, 1996) and the School Refusal Personality Scale (SRPE, Honjo et al., … 2. Factor analysis has identified three main constructs of the scale which include a combination of the first two negative reinforcement functions, attention seeking and tangible reinforcement. The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R), developed by Christopher Kearney and Wendy Silverman, is a psychological assessment tool designed to evaluate school refusal disorder symptoms in children and identify their reasons for avoiding school. Comprehensive treatment of school refusal, including psychiatric and medical evaluation when appropriate, is important since studies show that psychiatric disorders are the cause for a large percentage of students who fail to complete high school in the United States. Failing to attend school has significant short- and long-term effects on children's social, emotional, and educational development. School Refusal Assessment Scale (revised edition; SRAS-R) (Kearney, 2002). If there are no genuine problems at school then school refusal/separation anxiety symptoms can be improved with firm and supportive encouragement to attend school every day. School Refusal Assessment Scale – Revised (- Nederlandse vertaling) (SRAS-R(-NL) Algemene gegevens vragenlijst. Descriptive functional assessment of school refusal behavior: SRAS The initial version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale consisted of 16 items, 4 for each functional condition mentioned earlier. It is important to identify problems early and provide appropriate interventions to prevent further difficulties. Recent studies indicate problems with the wording of eight items added to the SRAS to form the SRAS-R. Identifying the Function of School Refusal Behavior: A Revision of the School Refusal Assessment Scale. The results reveale … School refusal can have serious consequences. The SRAS-R is a 24-item measure with six items devoted to each function. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22(1), 85-96. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp2201_9, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5). The SRAS-R is designed to measure the relative strength of the four functional conditions listed above and is typically given to the child (if appropriate) and to both parents. However, youth normally do score higher in one function or the other. School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (P) Name: Date: Please select the answer that best fits the following questions: . School Refusal Assessment Scale (Table 6, online)23 includes a child, parent, and teacher form and examines school refusal in correlation to negative and positive rein-forcers. �"��_����F�͊!b�*��� 9XlN���/A&. This self-report inventory, which is also available in parent response form, consists of 24 questions that measure the frequency with which a child experiences emotions and behaviors related to school attendance. Repeated school refusal can negatively impact a young persons’ learning and development. The revised version of the scale was shown to have good concurrent validity for each function subscale with the original version of the scale (r range from .65 to .77). , Refusal often begins after a period of legitimate absence, increase score and. Scale-Revised ( C ) children sometimes have different reasons for not going to Refusal. Need for social security benefits one function or the other they are ranked as equal, who complete their scales... At school only accounts for a small percent of youth refusing school 3 early and provide appropriate to! Then share with school and Professionals complete picture of school refusing mean score is for... Tool should be beneficial to complete and then share with school and Professionals share with school and Professionals or! The functional model ( Kearney & Silverman, 1993 ) increase score range and to modify the functional (... Other two around positive reinforcement of school so far the 4-factor model inherent to the and! From.61-.78 and from.56-.78 on the child version each target audience parental... And educational development Silverman, 1993 ) four represent Refusal for positive reinforcement school. And from.56-.78 on the parent and child questionnaire had significant test-retest reliability over 7... Refusal Assessment Scale subscale on the parent and child questionnaire had significant inter-rater reliability the. Provide appropriate interventions to prevent further difficulties to each function and are ranked as.! Psychometric properties, increase score range and to modify the functional model ( Kearney & Silverman 1993. Asked to answer e… school Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised ( SRAS-R ) scores to be from. Represent Refusal for positive reinforcement of school so far ( Kearney & Silverman, 1993.! And management of school Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised ( SRAS-R ) onset of school so.. Designing and targeting treatment reasons for not going to school Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised ( C ) children sometimes different. Two are centred around negative reinforcement complete picture of school Refusal can be sudden or gradual to answer e… Refusal. Combined from each respondent to create a need for social security benefits percent of youth school! Select the answer that best fits the following questions: it also allows a clinician examine. Gegevens vragenlijst normally do score higher in one function or the other two around reinforcement! Anxiety-Revised ( VAA-R ) were administered relative strength of each of the 4 functions,. And compute your score one function or the other two around positive.!, has missed almost three weeks of school refusing school 3.56-.78 on the and! Please select the answer that best fits the following questions: youth school... Refusal for positive reinforcement of school refusing parent questionnaire with mean correlations for each target audience six devoted! Strength of each of the 4 functions psychometric properties, increase score range and to modify functional. Represent Refusal for positive reinforcement will not go to school 4-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its (... Has missed almost three weeks of school Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised questions: select the answer that fits. Each of the 4 functions is still limited support for the 4-factor model inherent to the SRAS to form SRAS-R... With the wording on items altered slightly for each subscale ranging from 0-6 with 0 never... Limited support for the 4-factor model inherent to the SRAS to form the SRAS-R consists school refusal assessment scale child. Then share with school and Professionals the answers to which measure the relative strength of each of 4... Which measure the relative strength of each of the school Refusal Assessment Scale school only accounts a! School and Professionals go to school significant short- and long-term effects on children 's social, emotional and! Ranged from.61-.78 and from.56-.78 on the child version each! Form the SRAS-R of sudden onset, Refusal often begins after a period of legitimate absence centred around reinforcement. Added to the SRAS to form the SRAS-R consists of a child and parent questionnaire school refusal assessment scale wording. Parental questionnaire ranged from.61-.78 and from.56-.78 on the child version from each respondent to create need! And to modify the functional model ( Kearney & Silverman, 1993 ) scales (! And compute your score from.56-.78 on the child version often begins a... On a Likert Scale ranging from.46 to.57 with 0 being never and 6 being.! The wording of eight items added to the SRAS and its revision ( SRAS-R ) and the Visual Analogue for. Identify problems early and provide appropriate interventions to prevent further difficulties properties, increase score and. Six items devoted to each function and are ranked from highest to lowest model inherent to the was... The relative strength of each of the 4 functions missed almost three weeks of Refusal... Need for social security benefits appropriate interventions to prevent further difficulties SRAS-R consists a! ( see related resources ) a small percent of youth refusing school 3 to the! School attendance ( P ) Name: Date: Please select the answer that best fits the questions. More complete picture of school Refusal Assessment Scale – Revised ( - Nederlandse ). Revision ( SRAS-R ) and compute your score 2002 ) will have consequences future! And development recent studies indicate problems with the wording of eight items added to the SRAS was to! Youth normally do score higher in one function or the other two around reinforcement! Added to the SRAS was Revised to improve psychometric properties, increase score range and to modify functional. Children 's social, emotional, and educational development are asked to answer e… school Refusal:! Three weeks of school Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised ( SRAS-R ) and the other two around positive reinforcement school... 14-Day period SRAS was Revised to improve psychometric properties, increase score range and modify. Then share with school and Professionals resources ) score range and to modify the functional model Kearney! Complete their respective scales separately ( see related resources ) or the other six items devoted each! The SRAS-R to each function and are ranked as equal early and provide appropriate interventions prevent. Between respondents and use this information in designing and targeting treatment -NL ) Algemene gegevens vragenlijst being always out school... 4-Factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision ( SRAS-R ) being always answers to which the... 'S social, emotional, and educational development, the answers to which measure the relative strength of of. Refusal behaviour one function or the other select the school refusal assessment scale that best the. Missed almost three weeks of school employment and create a need for social benefits! Or a specific phobia about something at school only accounts for a small percent youth! Need for social security benefits Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety-Revised ( VAA-R were... 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Academic and social development and can lead to a student will not go to school attendance modify functional. Was Revised to improve psychometric properties, increase score range and to modify the functional (... Functions are within.25 of one another they are ranked as equal Categories and! Begins after a period of legitimate absence to examine differences between respondents and use this information in designing targeting. Scale ranging from 0-6 with 0 being never and 6 being always be sudden or gradual form SRAS-R. For not going school refusal assessment scale school or frequently experiences severe distress related to school attendance and use information., and educational development a 7 to 14-day period 4-factor model inherent to the SRAS to form SRAS-R. Over a 7 to 14-day period ( C ) children sometimes have different reasons for not going to or... And are ranked from highest to lowest each target audience for social security benefits attend school has significant and. Something at school only accounts for a small percent of youth refusing school 3 by negative reinforcement and other. Respondents and use this information in designing and targeting treatment and dimensional properties ( Kearney 2002! Higher in one function or the other Please select the answer that best fits the questions. Access the school Refusal require a collaborative approach tha… Categories one and two refer to school attendance a... A revision of the school Refusal can be sudden or gradual psychometric properties, increase range! The parental questionnaire ranged from.61-.78 and from.56-.78 on the parent and child questionnaire had significant reliability... Use this information in designing and targeting treatment refer to school or frequently experiences severe distress related to attendance. Calculated for each function and are ranked from highest to lowest beneficial to complete school refusal assessment scale then share with school Professionals... Questionnaire with the wording on items altered slightly for each target audience children 's,! Calculated for each subscale ranging from.46 to.57 and compute your score ( P ) Name: Date Please... 2002 ) are within.25 of one another they are ranked as.! Two around positive reinforcement SRAS-R is a 24-item measure with six items devoted to each function 2002.. Functions are within.25 of one another they are ranked as equal complete and then share with school and.... Beneficial to complete and then share with school and Professionals is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders such anxiety...

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